Volga Bulgaria Silver of the 10th-14th centuries
(on materials of the Trans-Urals collections)
Artistic Metal Studies by Natalia V. Fedorova. Abstract, "Volga Bulgaria silver is one of the brightest phenomena of the Middle Age European culture: organic combination of the Turkic traditions, artistic techniques and motifs of the urban culture of Central Asia, and the imagery peculiar to the heathen population of the Ural and Western Siberia; clear orientation of craftsmen-jewellers towards the "export" market and not just the local population, together with its tremendous production volumes make Bulgarian silver working a truly unique phenomenon. The main purpose of this paper is to trace the history of Bulgarian toreutics over the period between the 10th and the 16th centuries, as well as the interaction of the Bulgarian and the "Hungarian" styles in artistic metal, the role of the "Northern component" in artistic techniques of the Volga Bulgaria craftsmen."