Mineralogy of the Louvres Merovingian garnet cloisonné jewelry: Origins of the gems of the first kings of France
The most aristocratic sepultures contain the geologically rarest garnets (i.e., the garnets richest in pyrope end member). This correlation may suggest a relatively modern knowledge by the Franks in their evaluation of gem garnets (i.e., the geologically rarest gems are the most precious). This concept is more consistent with the Arab gemological writings of the fifth through ninth centuries than with those of the Roman lapidaries of the first through seventh centuries.

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